Publications Only



Block, K., Hall, W. M., Schmader, T., Inness, M., & Croft, E. (2018). Should I stay or should I go? Women’s implicit stereotypic associations predict their commitment and fit in STEM. Social Psychology49(4), 243–251. (PDF)

Hall, W., Schmader, T., Aday, A., & Croft, E. (2018). Decoding the Dynamics of Social Identity Threat in the Workplace: A Within-Person Analysis of Women’s and Men’s Interactions in STEM. Social Psychological and Personality Science. (PDF)

Block, K., Gonzalez, A. M., Schmader, T., & Baron, A. S. (2018). Early Gender Differences in Core Values Predict Anticipated Family Versus Career Orientation. Psychological Science29(9), 1540–1547. (PDF)

Van Grootel, S., Van Laar, C., Meeussen, L., Schmader, T., & Sczesny, S. (2018). Uncovering Pluralistic Ignorance to Change Men’s Communal Self-descriptions, Attitudes, and Behavioral Intentions. Frontiers in psychology9, 1344. (PDF)

Block, K., Croft, A., & Schmader, T. (2018). Worth Less?: Why Men (and Women) Devalue Care-Oriented Careers. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1353. (PDF)

Hall, W., Schmader, T., Aday, A., Inness, M., & Croft, E. (2018). Climate control: The relationship between social identity threat and cues to an identity-safe culture. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 115(3), 446-467. (PDF)

Croft, A., Schmader, T., & Block, K. (2018). Life in the Balance: Are Women’s Possible Selves Constrained by Men’s Domestic Involvement? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1-16. (PDF)

Picho, K. & Schmader, T. (2018). What do gender stereotypes impair math performance? A study of stereotype threat among Ugandan adolescents. Sex Roles, 78, 295-306. (PDF)




Schmader, T., & Sedikides, C. (2017). State inauthenticity as fit to environment (SAFE): Implications of social identity for fit, authenticity, and self-segregation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1-32. (PDF)

*Article received  2018 Daniel M. Wegner Theoretical Innovation Prize

Schmader, T., Martens, J., & Lawrence, J.S. (2017). Show your Pride?  The surprising effect of race on how people perceive a pride display, Self and Identity, 16, 313-334. (PDF)




Dowd, A. J., Chen, M. Y., Schmader, T., Jung, M. E., Zumbo, B. D., & Beauchamp, M. R. (2016). Psychosocial predictors of adolescent girls’ physical activity and dietary behaviours after completing the Go Girls! group-based mentoring program. Health Education Research. Advance online publication. (PDF)




Hall, W. M., Schmader, T., & Croft, E. (2015). Engineering exchanges: Daily social identity threat predicts burnout among female engineers. Social Psychological And Personality Science, 6, 528-534. (PDF)

Schuster, C., Martiny, S., & Schmader, T. (2015). Distracted by the Unthought – Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat. PLoS One, 10. (PDF)

Schmader, T., Hall, W., & Croft, A. (2015). Stereotype threat in intergroup relations. In M. Mikulincer, P. R. Shaver, J. F. Dovidio, J. A. Simpson, M. Mikulincer, P. R. Shaver, … J. A. Simpson (Eds.) , APA handbook of personality and social psychology, Volume 2: Group processes (pp. 447-471). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. (PDF)




Dowd, A. J., Schmader, T., Sylvester, B. D., Jung, M. E., Zumbo, B. D., Martin, L. J., & Beauchamp, M. R. (2014). Effects of social belonging and task framing on exercise cognitions and behavior. Journal Of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 36, 80-92. (PDF)

Schmader, T., Hall, W. (2014) Stereotype Threat in School and at Work: Putting Science Into Practice. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1, 30-37. (PDF)

Lickel, B., Kushlev, K., Savalei, V., Matta, S., & Schmader, T. (2014). Shame and the motivation to change the self. Emotion, 14, 1049-1061. (PDF)

Croft, A., Schmader, T., Block, K., & Baron, A. S. (2014). The second shift reflected in the second generation: Do parents’ gender roles at home predict children’s aspirations?. Psychological Science, 25, 1418-1428. (PDF)

Schmader, T., Croft, A., & Whitehead, J. (2014). Why can’t I just be myself?: A social cognitive analysis of the working self-concept under stereotype threat. Social Psychological And Personality Science, 5, 4-11. (PDF)

Dunlop, W. L., & Schmader, T. (2014). For the overweight, is proximity to in-shape, normal-weight exercisers a deterrent or an attractor? An examination of contextual preferences. International Journal Of Behavioral Medicine, 21, 139-143. (PDF)




Schmader, T., Croft, A., Whitehead, J., & Stone, J. (2013). A peek inside the targets’ toolbox: How stigmatized targets deflect discrimination by invoking a common identity. Basic And Applied Social Psychology, 35, 141-149. (PDF)




Zhang, S., Schmader, T., & Hall, W. M. (2013). L’eggo my ego: Reducing the gender gap in math by unlinking the self from performance. Self And Identity, 12, 400-412. (PDF)

Croft, A., & Schmader, T. (2012). The feedback withholding bias: Minority students do not receive critical feedback from evaluators concerned about appearing racist. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 1139-1144. (PDF)

Forbes, C.E., Cox, C.L., Schmader, T., & Ryan, L. (2012). Negative stereotype activation alters interaction between neural correlates of arousal, inhibition, and cognitive control. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 771-781. (PDF)

Schmader, T., Croft, A., Scarnier, M., Lickel, B., & Mendes, W.B. (in press). Implicit and explicit emotion reactions to witnessing prejudice. Group Processes and Intergroup Behavior, 15, 379-392. (PDF)


Inzlicht, M., & Schmader, T. (Eds.) (2012). Stereotype threat: Theory, Process, and Application. Oxford University Press.

Inzlicht, M., & Schmader, T. (Eds.) (2012). Introduction. In M. Inzlicht and T. Schmader (Eds.), Stereotype threat: Theory, Process, and Application. Oxford University Press.

Schmader, T., & Beilock, S. (2012). An integration of processes that underlie stereotype threat. In M. Inzlicht and T. Schmader (Eds.), Stereotype threat: Theory, Process, and Application. Oxford University Press. (PDF)




Mrazek, M.D., Chin, J.,M., Schmader, T., Hartson, K.A., Smallwood, J., & Schooler, J. (2011). Threatened to distraction: Mind wandering as a consequence of stereotype threat. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 1243-1248. (PDF)

Schmader, T. & Croft, A. (2011). How stereotypes stifle performance. Personality and Social Psychology Compass, 5, 792-806. (PDF)

Lickel, B., Steele, R., & Schmader, T. (2011). Group-based shame and guilt: Emerging directions in research. Personality and Social Psychology Compass, 5, 153-163. (PDF)

Stone, J., Whitehead, J., Schmader, T., & Focella, E. (2011). Thanks for asking: Self-affirming questions reduce backlash when stigmatized targets confront prejudice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 589-598. (PDF)

Holleran, S., Whitehead, J., Schmader, T., & Mehl, M. (2011). Talking shop and shooting the breeze: Predicting women’s job disengagement from workplace conversations. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2, 65-71. (PDF)




Forbes, C.E., & Schmader, T. (2010). Retraining implicit attitudes and stereotypes to distinguishmotivation from performance in a stereotype threatening domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 740-754. (PDF)

Kosloff, S., Greenberg, J., Schmader, T., Dechesne, M., & Weise, D. (2010). Smearing the Opposition: Implicit and Explicit Stigmatization of the 2008 U.S.Presidential Candidates. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139, 383-398. (PDF)

Schmader, T. (2010). Stereotype threat deconstructed. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 14-18. (PDF)

Johns, M., & Schmader, T. (2010). Meta-cognitive regulation as a reaction to the uncertainty of stereotype threat. In R.M. Arkin, K.C. Oleson, & P.J. Carroll (Eds.) The uncertain self: A handbook of perspectives from social and personality psychology (pp. 176-192). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (PDF)

Schmader, T. (2010). Stereotype threat. In J.M. Levine & M.A. Hogg (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Group Relations and Intergroup Processes. Sage Publications.

Jamieson, J., Mendes, W.B., Blackstock, E., & Schmader, T. (2010). Turning knots in your stomach into bows: Reappraising arousal improves performance on the GRE. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. (PDF)




Schmader, T., Forbes, C.E., Zhang, S., & Mendes, W.B. (2009). A meta-cognitive perspective on cognitive deficits experienced in intellectually threatening environments. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 584-596. (PDF)

Scarnier, M., Schmader, T., & Lickel, B. (2009). Parental shame and guilt: Emotional reactions to a child’s wrongdoing. Personal Relationships, 16, 205-220. (PDF)

Zhang, S., Schmader, T., & Forbes, C. (2009). Gender stereotypes and the choice of career paths. In M. Barreto, M. Ryan, & M. Schmitt (Eds.), The Glass Ceiling in the 21st Century: Understanding Barriers to Gender Equality (pp. 125-150). American Psychological Association. (PDF)




Schmader, T. , Johns, M., & Forbes, C. (2008). An integrated process model of stereotype threat effects on performance.* Psychological Review, 115, 336-356. (PDF)

Schmader, T., & Stone, J. (2008). Toward a problem-focused approach to prejudice [Commentary], Psychological Inquiry, 19, 108-113. (PDF)

Johns, M.J., Inzlicht, M., & Schmader, T. (2008). Stereotype threat and executive resource depletion: Examining the influence of emotion regulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137, 691-705. (PDF)

Forbes, C., Schmader, T., & Allen, J.J.B. (2008). The role of devaluing and discounting in performance monitoring: A neurophysiological study of minorities under threat. Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, 3, 253-261.(PDF)
* Article received Honorable Mention for the 2007 Gordon Allport Intergroup Relations Prize




Schmader, T. , Whitehead, J., & Wysocki, V.H. (2007). A linguistic comparison of letters of recommendation for male and female chemistry and biochemistry job applicants. Sex Roles, 57, 509-514. (PDF)

Martens, A., Kosloff, S., Greenberg, J., Landau, M., & Schmader, T. (2007). Killing begets killing: Evidence from a bug-killing paradigm that initial killing of similar others escalates subsequent killing. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 1251-1264. (PDF)

Lickel, B., Schmader, T., & Spanovic, M. (2007). Group-conscious emotions: The implications of others’ wrongdoings for identity and relationships. In J.L. Tracy, R.W. Robins, & J.P. Tangney (Eds.), The self-conscious emotions: Theory and Research (pp. 351-370). New York: NY: Guilford Press. (Google Book)

Iyer, A., Schmader, T., & Lickel, B. (2007). Why individuals protest the perceived transgressions of their country: The role of anger, shame, and guilt. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 572-587. (PDF)




Lickel, B., Miller, N., Stenstrom, D.M., Denson, T.F., & Schmader, T. (2006). Vicarious retribution: The role of collective blame in intergroup aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 372-390. (PDF)

Schmader, T., & Lickel, B. (2006). The approach and avoidance function of personal and vicarious shame and guilt. Motivation and Emotion, 30, 43-56. (PDF)

Schmader, T., & Lickel, B. (2006). Stigma and shame: Emotional responses to the stereotypic actions of one’s ethnic ingroup. In S. Levin & C. van Laar (Eds.), Stigma and Group Inequality: Social Psychological Approaches. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (Google Book)




Johns, M., Schmader, T., & Lickel, B. (2005). Ashamed to be an American?: The role of identification in predicting vicarious shame for Anti-Arab prejudice after 9-11. Self and Identity, 4, 331-348. (PDF)

Johns, M., Schmader, T., & Martens, A. (2005). Knowing is half the battle: Teaching stereotype threat as a means of improving women’s math performance. Psychological Science, 16, 175-179. (PDF)

Lickel, B., Schmader, T., Curtis, M., Scarnier, M., & Ames, D.R. (2005). Vicarious shame and guilt. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 8, 145-157. (PDF)




Schmader, T., Johns, M., & Barquissau, M. (2004). The costs of accepting gender differences: The role of stereotype endorsement in women’s experience in the math domain. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 50, 835-850. (PDF)

Lickel, B., Schmader, T., & Barquissau, M. (2004). The evocation of moral emotions in intergroup contexts: The distinction between collective guilt and collective shame. In N.R. Branscombe & B. Doosje (Eds.), Collective guilt: International perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press. (PDF)




Schmader T., Johns M. (2003). Converging Evidence That Stereotype Threat Reduces Working Memory Capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 440-452. (PDF)

Lickel, B., Schmader, T., & Hamilton , D.L. (2003). A Case of Collective Responsibility: Who Else Was to Blame for the Columbine High School Shootings? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 194-204. (PDF)

Major, B., Quinton, W.J., & Schmader, T. (2003). Attributions to discrimination and self-esteem: Impact of group identification and situational ambiguity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 220-213. (PDF)




Schmader, T. (2002). Gender identification moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women’s math performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 194-201. (PDF)

Major, B., Gramzow, R. H., McCoy, S., Levin, S., Schmader, T., & Sidanius, J. (2002). Ideology and attributions to discrimination among low and high status groups.* Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. (PDF)
* Article received Honorable Mention for the 2002 Gordon Allport Intergroup Relations Prize




Schmader, T ., Major, B., & Gramzow, R. H. (2001). Coping with ethnic stereotypes in the academic domain: perceived injustice and psychological disengagement.* Journal of Social Issues, 57, 93-111. (PDF)

Schmader T., Major B., Eccleston C., McCoy S. (2001). Devaluing Domains in Response to Threatening Intergroup Comparisons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 782-796. (PDF)

Major, B., & Schmader, T. (2001). From social devaluation to self-esteem: The impact of legitimacy appraisals. In B. Major & J. Jost (Eds.), Psychology of legitimacy: Emerging perspectives on ideology, justice, and intergroup relations. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. (PDF Part 1) (PDF Part 2)
* A reprinted excerpt of this article is published as: Schmader, T., Major, B., & Gramzow, R.H., (2002). How African-American college students protect their self-esteem. Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 35.




Major, B., Quinton, W.J., McCoy, S.K., & Schmader, T. (2000). Reducing prejudice: What can targets do? In S. Oskamp (Ed.) Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination (pp. 211-237). Mahwah , NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum. (PDF)




Schmader, T., & Major, B. (1999). The impact of ingroup vs. outgroup performance on personal values. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 47-67. (PDF)

Quinn, P. C., Norris, C. M., Pasko, R. N., Schmader, T. M., & Mash, C. (1999). Formation of a categorical representation for the spatial relation between by 6- to 7-month-old infants. Visual Cognition, 6, 569-585. (PDF)




Major, B. & Schmader, T. (1998). Coping with stigma through psychological disengagement. In J. Swim & C. Stangor (Eds.), Prejudice: The Target’s Perspective, The Academic Press, 219-241. (PDF)

Major, B., Spencer, S., Schmader, T., Wolfe, C., & Crocker, J. (1998). Coping with negative stereotypes about intellectual performance: The role of psychological disengagement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 34-50. (PDF)