Publications Only


Gross, J.J., Schmader, T., Martin Hard, B., & Anderson, A.K. (2020). Interactive Psychology: People in Perspective. Norton Publishing, New York, NY.

Greenberg, J., Schmader, T., Arndt, J., & Landau, M. (2020). Social Psychology: The Science of Everyday Behavior. (3nd Ed.) Worth Publishing, New York, NY.

Greenberg, J., Schmader, T., Arndt, J., & Landau, M. (2018). Social Psychology: The Science of Everyday Behavior. (2nd Ed.) Worth Publishing, New York, NY.

Major, B., & Schmader, T. (2018). Stigma, social identity threat, and health. In B. Major, J.F. Dovidio, & B.G. Link (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of stigma, discrimination, and health.  New York: Oxford University Press. (PDF

Greenberg, J., Schmader, T., Arndt, J., & Landau, M. (2015). Social Psychology: The Science of Everyday Behavior. (1st Ed.) Worth Publishing, New York, NY.

Inzlicht, M., & Schmader, T. (Eds.) (2012). Stereotype threat: Theory, Process, and Application. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.


Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles


Margoni, F., *Block, K., Hamlin, K., Zmyj, N., & Schmader, T. (2023). Meta-analytic evidence against sex differences in infants’ and toddlers’ preference for prosocial agents. Developmental Psychology, 59(2), 229–235. (PDF)


Schmader, T. (2022). Gender disparities and inclusion in STEM. Annual Review in Psychology. 74(1). (PDF)

Block, K., Gonzalez, A.M., Choi, C.J.X., Wong, Z.C., Schmader, T., & Baron, A.S. (2022). Exposure to stereotype-relevant stories shapes children’s implicit gender stereotypes. PloS one, 17(8), e0271396. (PDF)

Hall, W., Schmader, T., Cyr, E. N., & Bergsieker, H. B. (2022). Collectively constructing gender-inclusive work cultures in STEM. European Review of Social Psychology, 1-48. (PDF)

De Souza, L., & Schmader, T. (2022). The misjudgment of men: Does pluralistic ignorance inhibit allyship?. Journal of personality and social psychology, 122(2), 265–285. (PDF)

Schmader, T., *Dennehy, T., & Baron, A. (2022). Why antibias interventions (need not) fail. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 17(5) 1381-1403. DOI: 10.1177/ (PDF)


Diekman, A. B., & Schmader, T. (2021). Gender as Embedded Social Cognition. (PDF)

Gonzalez, A., Odic, D., Schmader, T., *Block, K., & Baron, A. (2021). The effect of gender stereotypes on young girls’ intuitive number sense. PLOS ONE. 16(10), e0258886. (PDF)

Cyr, E.N., Bergsieker, H., *Dennehy, T., & Schmader, T. (2021). Mapping Social Exclusion in STEM to Men’s Implicit Bias and Women’s Career Costs. Proceedings of the National Academies of Science. Advance online publication. (PDF)

Hall, W., Schmader, T., Inness, M., & Croft, E. (2021). Climate change: Improving norms for inclusion predicts greater fit for women in STEM. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. Advance online publication. (PDF)

Bosson, J., Jurek, P., Vandello, J., Kosakowska-Berezecka, N., Olech, M., Besta, T., […] Schmader, T.. […] Žukauskienė, R. (170 total authors). (2021). Psychometric Properties and Correlates of Precarious Manhood Beliefs in 62 Nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 0, 1 -12. (PDF)

Beauchamp, M. R., Liu, Y., Dunlop, W.L., Ruissen, G. R., Schmader, T., Harden, S. M., Wolf, S. A., Puterman, E., Sheel, A. W., & Rhodes, R. E. (2021). Psychological mediators of exercise adherence among older adults in a group-based randomized trial. Health Psychology, 3, 166-177. (PDF)


Gruber, J., Mendle, J., Lindquist, K.A., Schmader, T.… Williams, L.A. (2020). The future of women in psychological science. Perspectives in Psychological Science. (PDF)

Ruissen, G.R., Liu, T., Schmader, T., Lubans, D.R., Harden, S.M.,, Wolf, S.A., Rhodes, R.E., Estabrooks, P.A., Dunlop, W.L., Puterman, E., Zumbo, B.D., & Beauchamp, M.R. (2020). Effects of group-based exercise on flourishing and stigma-consciousness among older adults: Findings from a randomized control trial. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 12. PDF

Bennett, E.H., Bergsieker, H.B., Coe, I.R., Koch-Kraft, A., Langelier, E., Morrison, S., Nikoleyczik, K., Schmader, T., Trivailo, O., Twine, S., & Decker, J.E. (2020). Enacting workplace cultural change for excellence in research: A gender lens. Facets, 5, 228-233. (PDF)

Croft, A., Schmader, T., Beall, A., & Schaller, M. (2020). Breadwinner seeks bottle warmer: How women’s future goals predict their mate preferences. Sex Roles, 82, 633–643.  (PDF)


Régner, I., Thinus-Blanc, C., Netter, A., Schmader, T., & Huguet, P. (2019). Implicit bias predicts promoting fewer women in science when evaluators deny discrimination. Nature Human Behavior, ( (PDF)

Aday, A., & Schmader, T. (2019). Seeking authenticity in diverse contexts: How identities and environments constrain “free” choice. Personality and Social Psychology Compass. (PDF)

Block, K., Croft, A., De Souza, L., & Schmader, T. (2019). Do people care if men don’t care? The asymmetry in support for changing gender roles. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 83, 112-131. (PDF)

Sandstrom, G., Schmader, T., & Croft, A., Kwok, N. (2019). When the “Haves” give to the “Have Nots” The affective consequences of generosity across the status divide. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 82, 98-114. (PDF)

Hall, W. M., Schmader, T., Aday, A., and Croft, E. (2019). Decoding the dynamics of social identity threat in the workplace: A within-person analysis of women’s and men’s interactions in STEM. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 10, 542-552. (PDF)

Croft, A., Schmader, T., & Block, K. (2019) Life in the balance: Are women’s career goals constrained by men’s domestic involvement? Personality and Social Psychological Bulletin, 45, 808-823. (PDF)


Block, K., Croft, A., & Schmader, T. (2018). Worth Less?: Why Men (and Women) Devalue Care-Oriented Careers. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1353. (PDF)

Van Grootel, S., Van Laar, C., Meeussen, L., Schmader, T., & Sczesny, S. (2018). Uncovering Pluralistic Ignorance to Change Men’s Communal Self-descriptions, Attitudes, and Behavioral Intentions. Frontiers in psychology9, 1344. (PDF)

Hall, W., Schmader, T., Aday, A., Inness, M., & Croft, E. (2018). Climate control: The relationship between social identity threat and cues to an identity-safe culture. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 115(3), 446-467. (PDF)

Block, K., Hall, W. M., Schmader, T., Inness, M., & Croft, E. (2018). Should I stay or should I go? Women’s implicit stereotypic associations predict their commitment and fit in STEM. Social Psychology49(4), 243–251. (PDF)

Block, K., Gonzalez, A. M., Schmader, T., & Baron, A. S. (2018). Early Gender Differences in Core Values Predict Anticipated Family Versus Career Orientation. Psychological Science29(9), 1540–1547. (PDF)

Beauchamp, M.R., Dunlop, W.L., Ruissen, G.R., Estabrooks, P.A., Harden, S.M., Wolf, S.A., Liu, Y., Schmader, T., Puterman, E., Sheele, A.W., & Rhodes, R.E. (2018). Gr0up based physical Activity for oLder adults (GOAL) randomized controlled trial: Exercise adherence outcomes. Health Psychology. 37, 451-461. (PDF)

Schmader, T., & Sedikides, C. (2018). State authenticity as fit to environment (SAFE): Implications of social identity for fit, authenticity, and self-segregation. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 22, 228-259(PDF)

            *Winner of the 2018 Daniel M. Wegner Theoretical Innovation Prize

            *Winner of the 2020 EASP Theory Innovation Award


Picho, K. & Schmader, T. (2017). What you think is what you get: Stereotypic expectancies moderates stereotype threat effects in Ugandan high school students. Sex Roles, 78, 295-306. (PDF)

Schmader, T., Martens, J., & Lawrence, J.S. (2017). Show your Pride?  The surprising effect of race on how people perceive a pride display, Self and Identity, 16, 313-334. (PDF)


Dowd, A. J., Chen, M. Y., Schmader, T., Jung, M. E., Zumbo, B. D., & Beauchamp, M. R. (2016). Psychosocial predictors of adolescent girls’ physical activity and dietary behaviours after completing the Go Girls! group-based mentoring program. Health Education Research. Advance online publication. (PDF)


Hall, W. M., Schmader, T., & Croft, E. (2015). Engineering exchanges: Daily social identity threat predicts burnout among female engineers. Social Psychological And Personality Science, 6, 528-534. (PDF)

Croft, A., Schmader, T., & Block, K. (2015). An underexamined inequality: Cultural origins and psychological barriers contributing to men’s underrepresentation in communal roles. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 19, 343-370. (PDF)

Forbes, C.E., Leitner, J., Duran-Jordan, K., Magerman, A., Schmader, T., & Allen, J.J.B. (2015). Spontaneous default mode network phase-locking moderates performance perceptions under stereotype threat. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10(7), 994-1002. (PDF)

Schuster, C., Martiny, S., & Schmader, T. (2015). Distracted by the Unthought – Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat. PLoS One, 10. (PDF)

Schmader, T., Block, K., & Lickel, B. (2015). Minority reactions to stereotypic media portrayals: Factors that intensify and buffer feelings of vicarious shame and guilt. The Journal of Social Issues, 71, 54-72.


Lickel, B., Kushlev, K., Savalei, V., Matta, S., & Schmader, T. (2014). Shame and the motivation to change the self. Emotion, 14, 1049-1061. (PDF)

Croft, A., Schmader, T., Block, K., & Baron, A. S. (2014). The second shift reflected in the second generation: Do parents’ gender roles at home predict children’s aspirations?. Psychological Science, 25, 1418-1428. (PDF)

Dunlop, W. L., & Schmader, T. (2014). For the overweight, is proximity to in-shape, normal-weight exercisers a deterrent or an attractor? An examination of contextual preferences. International Journal Of Behavioral Medicine, 21, 139-143. (PDF)

Dowd, A. J., Schmader, T., Sylvester, B. D., Jung, M. E., Zumbo, B. D., Martin, L. J., & Beauchamp, M. R. (2014). Effects of social belonging and task framing on exercise cognitions and behavior. Journal Of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 36, 80-92. (PDF)

Schmader, T., Croft, A., & Whitehead, J. (2014). I can’t be myself: A social cognitive analysis of the working self-concept under stereotype threat, Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5, 4-11. DOI: 10.1177/1948550613482988 (PDF)

Schmader, T., Croft, A., & Whitehead, J. (2014). Why can’t I just be myself?: A social cognitive analysis of the working self-concept under stereotype threat. Social Psychological And Personality Science, 5, 4-11. (PDF)


Zhang, S., Schmader, T., & Hall, W. (2013). L’eggo my ego: Reducing the gender gap in math by unlinking the self from performance. Self and Identity, 12, 400-412. (PDF)

Schmader, T., Croft, A., Whitehead, J., & Stone, J. (2013). A peek inside the targets’ toolbox: How stigmatized targets deflect discrimination by invoking a common identity. Basic And Applied Social Psychology, 35, 141-149. (PDF)


Croft, A., & Schmader, T. (2012). The feedback withholding bias: Minority students do not receive critical feedback from evaluators concerned about appearing racist. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 1139-1144. (PDF)

Forbes, C.E., Cox, C.L., Schmader, T., & Ryan, L. (2012). Negative stereotype activation alters interaction between neural correlates of arousal, inhibition, and cognitive control. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 771-781. (PDF)

Schmader, T., Croft, A., Scarnier, M., Lickel, B., & Mendes, W.B. (2012). Implicit and explicit emotion reactions to witnessing prejudice. Group Processes and Intergroup Behavior, 15, 379-392. (PDF)


Mrazek, M.D., Chin, J.,M., Schmader, T., Hartson, K.A., Smallwood, J., & Schooler, J. (2011). Threatened to distraction: Mind wandering as a consequence of stereotype threat. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 1243-1248. (PDF)

Schmader, T. & Croft, A. (2011). How stereotypes stifle performance. Personality and Social Psychology Compass, 5, 792-806. (PDF)

Lickel, B., Steele, R., & Schmader, T. (2011). Group-based shame and guilt: Emerging directions in research. Personality and Social Psychology Compass, 5, 153-163. (PDF)

Stone, J., Whitehead, J., Schmader, T., & Focella, E. (2011). Thanks for asking: Self-affirming questions reduce backlash when stigmatized targets confront prejudice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 589-598. (PDF)

Holleran, S., Whitehead, J., Schmader, T., & Mehl, M. (2011). Talking shop and shooting the breeze: Predicting women’s job disengagement from workplace conversations. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2, 65-71. (PDF)


Forbes, C.E., & Schmader, T. (2010). Retraining implicit attitudes and stereotypes to distinguish motivation from performance in a stereotype threatening domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 740-754. (PDF)

Kosloff, S., Greenberg, J., Schmader, T., Dechesne, M., & Weise, D. (2010). Smearing the Opposition: Implicit and Explicit Stigmatization of the 2008 U.S.Presidential Candidates. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139, 383-398. (PDF)

Schmader, T. (2010). Stereotype threat deconstructed. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 14-18. (PDF)

Jamieson, J., Mendes, W.B., Blackstock, E., & Schmader, T. (2010). Turning knots in your stomach into bows: Reappraising arousal improves performance on the GRE. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. (PDF)


Schmader, T., Forbes, C.E., Zhang, S., & Mendes, W.B. (2009). A meta-cognitive perspective on cognitive deficits experienced in intellectually threatening environments. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 584-596. (PDF)

Scarnier, M., Schmader, T., & Lickel, B. (2009). Parental shame and guilt: Emotional reactions to a child’s wrongdoing. Personal Relationships, 16, 205-220. (PDF)


Schmader, T., Johns, M., & Forbes, C. (2008). An integrated process model of stereotype threat effects on performance.* Psychological Review, 115, 336-356. (PDF)

* Article received Honorable Mention for the 2007 Gordon Allport Intergroup Relations Prize

Johns, M.J., Inzlicht, M., & Schmader, T. (2008). Stereotype threat and executive resource depletion: Examining the influence of emotion regulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137, 691-705. (PDF)

Forbes, C., Schmader, T., & Allen, J.J.B. (2008). The role of devaluing and discounting in performance monitoring: A neurophysiological study of minorities under threat. Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, 3, 253-261.(PDF)


Schmader, T., Whitehead, J., & Wysocki, V.H. (2007). A linguistic comparison of letters of recommendation for male and female chemistry and biochemistry job applicants. Sex Roles, 57, 509-514. (PDF)

Martens, A., Kosloff, S., Greenberg, J., Landau, M., & Schmader, T. (2007). Killing begets killing: Evidence from a bug-killing paradigm that initial killing of similar others escalates subsequent killing. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 1251-1264. (PDF)

Iyer, A., Schmader, T., & Lickel, B. (2007). Why individuals protest the perceived transgressions of their country: The role of anger, shame, and guilt. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 572-587. (PDF)


Lickel, B., Miller, N., Stenstrom, D.M., Denson, T.F., & Schmader, T. (2006). Vicarious retribution: The role of collective blame in intergroup aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 372-390. (PDF)

Schmader, T., & Lickel, B. (2006). The approach and avoidance function of personal and vicarious shame and guilt. Motivation and Emotion, 30, 43-56. (PDF)


Johns, M., Schmader, T., & Lickel, B. (2005). Ashamed to be an American?: The role of identification in predicting vicarious shame for Anti-Arab prejudice after 9-11. Self and Identity, 4, 331-348. (PDF)

Johns, M., Schmader, T., & Martens, A. (2005). Knowing is half the battle: Teaching stereotype threat as a means of improving women’s math performance. Psychological Science, 16, 175-179. (PDF)

Lickel, B., Schmader, T., Curtis, M., Scarnier, M., & Ames, D.R. (2005). Vicarious shame and guilt. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 8, 145-157. (PDF)


Schmader, T., Johns, M., & Barquissau, M. (2004). The costs of accepting gender differences: The role of stereotype endorsement in women’s experience in the math domain. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 50, 835-850. (PDF)


Schmader T., Johns M. (2003). Converging Evidence That Stereotype Threat Reduces Working Memory Capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 440-452. (PDF)

Lickel, B., Schmader, T., & Hamilton, D.L. (2003). A Case of Collective Responsibility: Who Else Was to Blame for the Columbine High School Shootings? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 194-204. (PDF)

Major, B., Quinton, W.J., & Schmader, T. (2003). Attributions to discrimination and self-esteem: Impact of group identification and situational ambiguity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 220-213. (PDF)


Schmader, T. (2002). Gender identification moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women’s math performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 194-201. (PDF)

Major, B., Gramzow, R. H., McCoy, S., Levin, S., Schmader, T., & Sidanius, J. (2002). Ideology and attributions to discrimination among low and high-status groups.* Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. (PDF)
* Article received Honorable Mention for the 2002 Gordon Allport Intergroup Relations Prize


Schmader T., Major B., Eccleston C., McCoy S. (2001). Devaluing Domains in Response to Threatening Intergroup Comparisons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 782-796. (PDF)

Schmader, T ., Major, B., & Gramzow, R. H. (2001). Coping with ethnic stereotypes in the academic domain: perceived injustice and psychological disengagement.* Journal of Social Issues, 57, 93-111. (PDF)

* A reprinted excerpt of this article is published as: Schmader, T., Major, B., & Gramzow, R.H., (2002). How African-American college students protect their self-esteem. Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 35.


Schmader, T., & Major, B. (1999). The impact of ingroup vs. outgroup performance on personal values. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 47-67. (PDF)

Quinn, P. C., Norris, C. M., Pasko, R. N., Schmader, T. M., & Mash, C. (1999). Formation of a categorical representation for the spatial relation between by 6- to 7-month-old infants. Visual Cognition, 6, 569-585. (PDF)


Major, B., Spencer, S., Schmader, T., Wolfe, C., & Crocker, J. (1998). Coping with negative stereotypes about intellectual performance: The role of psychological disengagement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 34-50. (PDF)

Invited Chapters, Commentaries, and Entries

Schmader, T, Bergsieker, H.B., & Hall, W.M. (2020). Cracking the culture code: A tri-level model for cultivating inclusion in organizations. In Forgas, K., Fiedler, & W. Crano (Eds.). Applications of Social Psychology: How Social Psychology Can Contribute to the Solution of Real-World Problems (pp 334-355). Routledge, New York, NY. 

Schmader, T., & Forbes, C.E. (2017). Stereotypes and performance: Revisiting Steele and Aronson’s studies of stereotype threat. In J.R. Smith and S.A. Haslam (Eds.), Social Psychology: Revisiting the Classic Studies (2nd Ed.), Sage Publications: London, UK. (Google Book)

Schmader, T., & Block, K. (2015). Engendering identity: Toward a clearer conceptualization of gender as a social identity. Invited commentary in Sex Roles. DOI 10.1007/s11199-015-0536-3 (PDF)

Schmader, T., & Hall, W.M. (2015).  Stereotype threat. Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: An Interdisciplinary, Searchable, and Linkable Resource. 1 – 14.

Schmader, T., & Mendes, W.B. (2015). Putting feelings in a social context:  Three case studies applying gross’s extended model of emotion regulation. Invited commentary in Psychological Inquiry, 26, 116-122. DOI: 10.1080/1047840X.2015.962445 (PDF)

Schmader, T., Hall, W., & Croft, A. (2015). Stereotype threat in intergroup relations. In M. Mikulincer and P.R. Shaver (Eds.) APA Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology: Vol. 2. (pp. 447-471). Washington, D.C., American Psychological Association. (PDF)

Schmader, T., Hall, W. (2014) Stereotype Threat in School and at Work: Putting Science Into Practice. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1, 30-37. (PDF)

Baron, A.S., Schmader, T., Cvencek, D., & Meltzoff, A. (2014). The gendered self-concept: How implicit gender stereotypes and attitudes shape self-definition. In P.J. Leman & H.R. Tenenbaum (Eds.), Gender and Development (pp. 109-132), New York: Psychology Press. (PDF)

Inzlicht, M., & Schmader, T. (Eds.) (2012). Introduction. In M. Inzlicht and T. Schmader (Eds.), Stereotype threat: Theory, Process, and Application (pp. 3-14). Oxford University Press.

Schmader, T., & Beilock, S. (2012). An integration of processes that underlie stereotype threat. In M. Inzlicht and T. Schmader (Eds.), Stereotype threat: Theory, Process, and Application. Oxford University Press. (PDF)

Johns, M., & Schmader, T. (2010). Meta-cognitive regulation as a reaction to the uncertainty of stereotype threat. In R.M. Arkin, K.C. Oleson, & P.J. Carroll (Eds.) The uncertain self: A handbook of perspectives from social and personality psychology (pp. 176-192). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (PDF)

Schmader, T. (2010). Stereotype threat. In J.M. Levine & M.A. Hogg (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Group Relations and Intergroup Processes. Sage Publications. (Google Book)

Zhang, S., Schmader, T., & Forbes, C. (2009). Gender stereotypes and the choice of career paths. In M. Barreto, M. Ryan, & M. Schmitt (Eds.), The Glass Ceiling in the 21st Century: Understanding Barriers to Gender Equality (pp. 125-150). American Psychological Association. (PDF)

Schmader, T., & Stone, J. (2008). Toward a problem-focused approach to prejudice [Commentary], Psychological Inquiry, 19, 108-113. (PDF)

Lickel, B., Schmader, T., & Spanovic, M. (2007). Group-conscious emotions: The implications of others’ wrongdoings for identity and relationships. In J.L. Tracy, R.W. Robins, & J.P. Tangney (Eds.), The self-conscious emotions: Theory and Research (pp. 351-370). New York: NY: Guilford Press. (Google Book)

Schmader, T., & Lickel, B. (2006). Stigma and shame: Emotional responses to the stereotypic actions of one’s ethnic ingroup. In S. Levin & C. van Laar (Eds.), Stigma and Group Inequality: Social Psychological Approaches. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (Google Book)

Lickel, B., Schmader, T., & Barquissau, M. (2004). The evocation of moral emotions in intergroup contexts: The distinction between collective guilt and collective shame. In N.R. Branscombe & B. Doosje (Eds.), Collective guilt: International perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press. (PDF)

Major, B., & Schmader, T. (2001). From social devaluation to self-esteem: The impact of legitimacy appraisals. In B. Major & J. Jost (Eds.), Psychology of legitimacy: Emerging perspectives on ideology, justice, and intergroup relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (PDF Part 1) (PDF Part 2)

Major, B., Quinton, W.J., McCoy, S.K., & Schmader, T. (2000). Reducing prejudice: What can targets do? In S. Oskamp (Ed.) Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination (pp. 211-237). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (PDF)

Major, B. & Schmader, T. (1998). Coping with stigma through psychological disengagement. In J. Swim & C. Stangor (Eds.), Prejudice: The Target’s Perspective, The Academic Press, 219-241. (PDF)